In 19th century Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell laid the foundations for modern electromagnetism theory by grouping in a single theory all the previous observations, experiments and equations attributable to such phenomenon. It demonstrates that light, electricity and magnetism are all manifestations of a single phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. Maxwell summarized Michael Faraday’s and Andre-Marie Ampere’s works in four differential equations today simply known as Maxwell’s equations. They consider the existence of electromagnetic waves, whom speed was measured to be 310.740 Km/s by Maxwell according to data available at his time. From this result he deduced that light itself could be a form of electromagnetic wave, since both speed were almost identical.
In order to completely describe the behavior of the electromagnetic field through his equations Maxwell had to postulate the existence of a phenomenon called displacement current. The physicist theorized that the variation of the electric field alone was sufficient to generate a magnetic field in an insulating media, whose molecules are stimulated to deform, thus producing a charges movement: the displacement current.
Usually to describe the displacement current it’s taken as example the behavior of the electromagnetic field in a circuit composed by a flat capacitor (Fig 1. in green) traversed by a variable current.
Figure 1: Displacement current in a flat capacitor
The current (i) flows in the electrical wires but not in the capacitor so, according to Ampere’s law, a magnetic field (B) is formed only around the wires, with an interruption in the zone around the capacitor. The displacement current, which has the same intensity of the current i that flows in the circuit, creates an induced magnetic field with its force lines concentric and perpendicular to electric field (E) inside the capacitor and identical to those generated around the wires. Once the capacitor is charged the system condition becomes stationary: the current flow stops and the electric field E between the plates reach its maximum and constant value, causing the magnetic fields to collapse.
Given the nature of the PNN engine, which works by exploiting Lorentz forces generated in a capacitor, it was unavoidable that ASPS would have had the need to take tests and measurements regarding the effects of the displacement current in the system operation. Its conclusion is simply baffling: such phenomenon does not exist!
Association’s theory in fact is the following: “only something similar to the electric field propagates in the vacuum and when it hits a conductive material it makes its charges to oscillate, thus generating the magnetic field“.
For a brief recap: if for Maxwell the magnetic field inside a capacitor is generated by the moving charges of a dielectric material, for ASPS it’s generated by the oscillation of the charges in the conductive material stimulated by the electric field; in PNN case it could be the coils around the capacitor plates.
The assertion that it’s only the electric field who propagates in vacuum implies the existence of a transmission media today treated as a skeleton in the closet by scientific community but accepted by Maxwell himself: the luminiferous ether. Without it and the displacement current in fact the propagation of electromagnetic waves would violate the energy conservation law.
Even if I’m not a physicist I can realize that an eventual confirmation would have devastating consequences in the scientific world, because it would be forced to revise more than a century of its work. Over the years Laureti has explained online, by proposing calculations and measurement procedures, the reason why he rejects the displacement current theory but after TDS-VF2 was presented in 2013 he removed all material from ASPS homepage for safety reasons.
However in support of ASPS’s theory today remains a single yet very explicative fact: since over 150 years after its conception the displacement current has never been measured experimentally! The academic world has produced over the time elegant mathematical theories but apparently any practical result, while over the Internet there are a lot of students and amateur scientists who are searching, or proposing, measurement methods for this elusive current.
After violating Newton’s first and third principle will it be time for PNN to tear down another pillar of science? To know the truth we’ll have to wait until 2017, when the Association has planned to make public the know-how of the engine as soon as the patent will be granted.